|Title of the research||Feasibility Study on Jelekong LFG Collection & Energy Recovery CDM Project|
|Main research orgnisation||Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc.|
|Research partner(s)||Kajima Corporation, BPPT, West Java Environmental Protection Agency|
|Location of the project||Indonesia(West Java)|
|Summary of the research report (PDF)||Summary|
|Description of the project||The project aims to collect biogas (Landfill Gas: LFG) generated from organic fermentation in the Jelekong waste disposal site, located about 25km south from Bandung city in West Java, the third largest city in Indonesia both for power generation purposes and to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This site adopts the open-dumping system and landfill gases generated from the site are emitted to the air without being collected. The project intends to build LFG recovery facilities, LFG treatment facilities and power generation facilities in the site for power generation by using the collected LFG as fuel. The implementation of the project will not only improve the regional environment, but also create new employment opportunities with the construction of a new power plant. With expected ripple effects on the regional society and economy, the project is expected to contribute to sustainable development in Indonesia.|
|Sector of the project||Waste Management|
|Duration of the project activity/ crediting period||2008 - 2017|
|Baseline methodology/additionality||The Baseline Methodology used is ACM0001“Consolidated baseline methodology for landfill gas project activities”. This methodology can be applied to the project that claims emissions reductions for displacing or avoiding energy from other sources. At present, there are no regulations or laws, which oblige collection of LFG from waste disposal sites regardless of whether they are in operation or not and no projects using LFG have been carried out at waste disposal sites in Indonesia until now. Considering that, when waste disposal sites are closed, they are just covered with soil without any special treatment. After the closing of the Jelekong waste disposal site, the most likely scenario is “After the closed waste disposal site is covered with soil, extracting gas collection pipes are installed to emit LFG directly to the air”, which can be the baseline of the CDM.|
The survey used the “Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality” presented by the CDM executive board. Following the analysis, the project proves to be additional by being implemented as the CDM project.
|Estimation of GHG emissions||In order to decide the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) in solid and the LFG generation constant rate waste, which is a significant parameter in evaluating GHG emission reductions, solid waste samples from the landfill was collected by drilling in three places at the site and analyzed. Using holes, measurement wells were installed to measure the specification of the landfill gas. The calculation was made assuming that the amount of TOC included in wood chips is 50% in terms of dry weight. According to the analysis; the amount of TOC in solid waste in the Jelekong waste disposal site was 10.6% on average, lower than the default value of 17% indicated in the IPCC guideline. If the amount of TOC in wood chips, whose LFG generation constant rate is extremely low, is not included, it is an average 0.55%. In conclusion, overall, the Jelekong waste disposal site has limited potential to generate LFG. |
Based on the survey results, GHG emission reductions by the project were evaluated applying the First Order Decay Model, which is used in Europe. The results are as follows.
|Monitoring methodology||An approved methodology,ACM0001“Consolidated monitoring methodology for LFG Collection project activities” is applied to this project.|
Monitoring items and points in the project (indicated ○ in the chart), are described as follows.
|Environmental impact||The project contributes not only to the global reduction of GHG, but also to the regional environment through improving the abnormal, foul odor. Environmental impacts including noise and vibration during the construction period and exhaust gas and noise from the generators and other equipment used in the operating period is expected, but these will be very limited impacts in consideration of the project size and in-site project.|
This project doesn’t belong to the projects, (generation for 10MW and more) which require environmental impact assessment by Indonesian law. Therefore, environmental approval is likely to be obtained simply by submitting the Analysis of Environmental Impact (UKL) and the Environmental Management Plan (UPL) or the like, so the procedure and content is easier than in the case of EIA.
|Issues and tasks for project implementation||Drilling research and chemical analysis of solid waste has indicated that the TOC in waste in the Jelekong waste disposal site is lower than initial assumptions. In addition, although we assumed that the Jelekong waste disposal site would be expanded, it remains closed with about 3.6ha landfill area because of fierce rejections among residents living nearby. Consequently, it is unlikely to collect methane necessary for the project; therefore, we have concluded that the feasibility of the project is low in the present circumstances. However, the plan should be reevaluated when the following positive changes occur, so we would like to closely follow the garbage problem in the Bandung region including the Jelekong waste disposal site, and policies of the Indonesian government.|
① Expansion of the Jelekong waste disposal site
A procedure to open new waste disposal site is under way around Bandung city, but residents have staged demonstrations there, too. For this reason, the full-scale reuse and the expansion of the Jelekong waste disposal site might be considered.
② Electricity off-take price raising
The Indonesian government has come up with a policy of raising the rate of renewable energy in power generation to over 5% by 2020. Indonesia, which has slipped to a quasi oil importing country in spite of its membership to
OPEC regards the utilization of renewable energy in place of fossil fuel as an important national policy. The electricity off-take price has a huge impact on the profitability of projects. Thus, if the Indonesian government decides to set up a policy to increase the electricity off-take price, the feasibility of the project will be enhanced.
③ A rise in market price of CERs
It is obvious that a rise in market price of CERs will increase the feasibility of the project.