CDM Feasibility Study for Methane Emissions Avoidance at Waste Landfill Site in China

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of Feasibility Study (FS)CDM Feasibility Study for Methane Emissions Avoidance at Waste Landfill Site in China
FYFY 2008
Main Implementing EntityPacific Consultants Co., LTD.
FS Partner(s)Green Castle Environmental (GCE)
Location of Project ActivityChina (Beijing City)
Summary of FS ReportSummary (PDF271KB)
Description of Project ActivityThe purpose of this research is realizing the project where project participants will avoid the methane emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill site in Beijing city in China as a CDM project. The target MSW landfill site is already closed from waste disposal and landfill surface is covered by soil. For avoidance of methane emissions from the degradable waste landfill body in anaerobic condition the project participants will set air injection and water circulation equipments and keep appropriate temperature of landfill body in aerobic condition.
Targeted GHGCH4
Category of Project ActivityWaste Management
Duration of Project Activity/ Crediting Period2010 – 2016 / 2010 – 2016
Baseline Scenario (including Methodology to be applied)
  • Case A: The atmospheric release of LFG generated from anaerobic degradation process of organic waste matter at the landfill site (business-as-usual).
  • Case B: The retrofitting with landfill gas collection and combustion system to comply with laws and regulations or contractual requirements.
  • Case C: The composting treatment of existing wastes excavated from the landfill for recycling or re-disposing.
  • Case D: The project activity (on-site aerobic treatment of existing wastes) without registration as a CDM project activity.
The only Case A (business as usual) is identified as the most likely baseline scenario for the proposed project activity.
Demonstration of AdditionalityProject participants could not make any direct revenues by methane emissions avoidance project itself with on-site aeration technique. There is no law or regulation to stipulate for application of on-site aeration technique in closed landfill site in China. Considering that investment costs would stand even 35.8 in millions of RMB, it would not realistic that this project could be realized without CER revenues. Untreated landfilling is common practice and the project activity without CER revenues or other public fund is implausible. Therefore the proposed project activity is additional and is eligible as a CDM project.
Estimation of GHG Emission ReductionsAnnual average: 113,700t-CO2, Total: 795,900t-CO2/7years
Monitoring Plan (including Methodology to be applied)Existing organic waste sampling
The baseline emissions of anaerobic methane generation could be calculated based on the FOD model. The characteristics of existing wastes such as the fractions of degradable organic carbon (DOCj) could be identified based on the existing organic waste sampling. The waste samples could be obtained by open excavation survey and/or on-site boring survey.
Monitoring of residual methane emissions
The amount of landfill gas emissions from each venting pipes could be measured monthly or at least quarterly. And the fraction of methane in the LFG should be measured with a continuous gas analyzer. Besides the average amount of landfill gas emissions from each surface capping area and the methane concentration could be measured by using flux box survey.
Environmental Impact AnalysisDischarge water from the closed landfill site should be collected and circulated by the on-site aeration technique applied in this project. Then quality of discharge water should be kept in appropriate condition and be prevented from water contamination. Chinese authority does not have any law or regulation as to operational modification of closed MSW landfill site for additional environmental impact assessment such as discharge water quality evaluation.
Issues and Tasks for Project MaterialisationThe China government and the Beijing authority accept the possible good effect of this project; however, this project is the first case to apply this technology in China so far. This technology is applied only in the US. Therefore, this project should be a demonstration case. In addition proper landfill management with co-benefits is most acceptable to Chinese authority. Therefore the realization of this project as a CDM project will contribute to proper landfill management technique as well as contribute to environmental improvement and sustainable development in both urban and local communities in China.
Co-benefits EffectsThe project activity will bring about both environmental and socioeconomic good effects in community areas as follows:
  • The methane gas generation through anaerobic decomposition of the landfilled municipal solid wastes will be avoided at the root;
  • The toxic elements elution from the existing waste materials under aerobic condition in the landfill body will be also avoided at the root;
  • The chemical oxygen demand level and contamination of drainage leachate from the landfill will be highly reduced;
  • The stability of landfill site will be achieved in relatively short period of time and land use such as green space will be facilitated.