Feasibility Study on Power Generation Utilizing Biogas from Sewage Sludge and Organic Wastes in Kazakhstan

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of the researchFeasibility Study on Power Generation Utilizing Biogas from Sewage Sludge and Organic Wastes in Kazakhstan
FYFY 2004
Main research organizationTohoku Electric Power Co., Inc
Research partner(s)Ministry of Environmental Protection, Astana City, the Climate Change Coordination Center and others
Location of the projectAstana City, the Republic of Kazakhstan
Summary of the research report (PDF)Summary (370kb)
Description of the projectThis is a project to put organic wastes collected separately and sewage sludge produced at a sewage plant into the same fermenters to coferment, collect methane gas produced from the cofermentation and generate electricity using the gas in Astana City.
The amount of gas to be produced in this project has been calculated on the assumption that the project system has the capacity to take in 60,130㎥/year of organic wastes(food wastes), which are acceptable to the cofermenters among all the general wastes transported to the landfill site, and the inflow of sewage water at the sewage plant is 136,000m3/day. As a result of the calculation, the amounts of gas to be produced from the organic wastes and the sewage sludge are 7,235Nm3/day and 11,125m3/day respectively. Daily average electricity production calculated with the gas generation is 30.07MWh and average output is 1.25MW.
Meanwhile, the yen-loan-financed project that includes the sewage plant in Astana City, "Astana Water Supply and Sewerage Project" (hereinafter referred to as the JBIC project) was provided in July 2003. Our project has adopted a grid and facilities that do not exert any huge impacts on the existing system on the premise of implementation of the JBIC project.
GHGCH4: LFG reductions at the landfill site by putting organic wastes, which would otherwise anaerobically ferment and release methane into the atmosphere at the site, into the anaerobic fermenters
CO2: CO2 reductions by decreasing a part of the grid electricity through power generation utilizing methane gas produced from sewage sludge and organic wastes at the methane fermenters
Sector of the projectWaste Management
Duration of the project activity/ crediting period21years from November 2008
Baseline methodology/additionalityIn this study, we had come up with 12 scenarios by combining several options on waste management and on sewage treatment in Astana City. As a result of examination on the scenarios taking legislation/ institution, technical barriers, investment barriers, environmental impacts, regional trend and market barriers into account, we have chosen the scenario in which "all wastes are collected together, then landfilled, with produced methane gas (hereinafter referred to as LFG) flared. Sewage sludge is anaerobically fermented with produced methane gas combusted at a boiler" as the baseline scenario.
Meanwhile, the project scenario has been defined as the one in which "among all wastes, organic wastes collected through sorted collection or from factories are transported to the sewage plant, the organic wastes are put into anaerobic fermenters at the sewage plant with sewage sludge, and produced methane gas is utilized for power generation". This scenario is inferior to the baseline scenario in technical barriers and investment barriers, however, by carrying out the project as a JI project, we can overcome the technical barriers with technical guidance and lower the investment barriers through CO2 credits trading. Thus, the project scenario has additionality.
Estimation of GHG emissionsGHG reductions =Baseline GHG emissions-(Project GHG emissions+Leakage)
=73,923[t- CO2/year]
Baseline GHG emissions=67,200
Project GHG emissions=-6,798
Leakage=75(due to transportation)
Monitoring methodologyMajor planned monitoring items necessary for the project are as follows.

Inflow of sewage waterGenerated output by Biogas
Concentration of Methane gasCalorific value of Methane gas
The amount of organic wastes transportedPower source configuration of the grid
Consumption of each fuelGenerated output of the grid
CO2 emission coefficient of electricityLegislations
The number of trucks for transport of organic wastesThe amount of LFG collected
Mileage of trucksCalorific value of light oil
Environmental impactAs conceivable environmental impacts in this project, there are problems of noise or vibration by gas engines. Odor issues from organic wastes are also possible as the wastes are brought to the sewage plant.
However, these environmental impacts can be fully diminished by taking simple countermeasures on the equipment.
Issues and tasks for project implementationWe expect to carry out this project in the form of IPP through project financing. Given the rating of Kazakhstan by S&P, the environment for setting up project financing and carrying out a project can be said to have been in place in the nation to some extent.
However, our financial analysis has found out that the project in Astana City would not be economically feasible enough even with revenues from credits taken into account and, thus, would be difficult to be realized. That is because the construction plan of a new landfill site with LFG flaring is currently underway in Astana City, which made us significantly change the baseline from the initial projection.
Meanwhile, the financial analysis has indicated a possibility that a similar project in other site would ensure profitability.
ValidationThe host country, the Republic of Kazakhstan, is scheduled to ratify the Kyoto Protocol as a JI country and is currently undertaking adjustments at home. A system has been gradually set up in the nation to accurately grasp its green house gas emissions. However, it cannot be denied that there is a possibility that the nation may ratify the Kyoto Protocol without the system firmly put in place. Therefore, this time we created PDD and asked Designated Operational Entity to verify it to go through the verification process called "Second Track" by third-party institutions similar to CDM Executive Board and Designated Operational Entity in the case of CDM. In this study, we submitted PDD to DOE (DNV) early in January and carried out JI determination.
While pointing out some matters which should be confirmed at appropriate stages prior to implementation of the project, the DOE report has estimated GHG reductions in the First Commitment Period at 308,012t-CO2