Supplementary Feasibility Study on Biomass Generation at a Sugar Factory in Thailand

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of the researchSupplementary Feasibility Study on Biomass Generation at a Sugar Factory in Thailand
FYFY 2004
Main research organizationGeneral Environmental Technos Co., Ltd.
Research partner(s)Rajburi Sugar Co., Ltd.
Location of the projectRatchaburi Province in Thailand
Summary of the research report (PDF)Summary(99kb)
Description of the projectThe Project aims to contribute to the prevention of global warming through biomass-fired power generation. In addition to the dead leaves (trash) produced as post-harvest waste from sugarcane cultivation, rice husks will also be utilized as a biomass fuel.
After harvest, the trash will be collected using equipment designed to roll grass into round bales. In order to maintain the soil carbon content at least at the current level for 30 years, the proportions of trash to be collected from irrigated and non-irrigated fields are estimated at 50% and 30%, respectively. These figures were derived by inserting data such as rainfall and soil characteristics into a simulation model which forecasts the long-term dynamics of soil organic matter.
The Project will use trash as the primary fuel for power generation during the sugar production period, with rice husks being purchased for use during the non-production period in order to maintain continuous power generation. The electricity produced will then be sold to EGAT. The estimated average amounts of trash and rice husks to be collected are 46,600 t/y and 64,300 t/y, respectively.
In anticipation that alcohol-brewing plants making use of molasses will be constructed nearby, the Project also discusses the implementation of a cogeneration (combined heat and power) system in which part of the steam produced by the power generation will be used by the alcohol plants.
Sector of the projectBiomass Utilisation
Duration of the project activity/ crediting period21 years
Baseline methodology/additionalityGiven that 1 kg/h of steam equals approximately equals to 0.7 KW, 60 t/h of the rated output of the primary boiler is converted into the quantity of electricity of approximately 42 MW (< 45 MW) of electricity. In view of theits capacity offor cogeneration, the project is has been judged to conform to the requirements of the small-scale CDM.
From the applicable simplified baselines in Type I.D for small-scale CDM projectsAs a baseline for this CDM project, the "weighted average emission of the current power generation mix" is selected as baseline for this CDM project from applicable simplified baselines in Type I.D for small CDM projects.
The present project would encounter an investment barrier due to its low IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and, thus, it should have additionality in relation to the baseline scenario of financially more viable alternative to the project activity that would have led to higher GHG emissions.
Estimation of GHG emissionsThe estimated average CO2 emission factor of the EGAT in 2002 is computed to be 0.586 t-CO2/MWh, and electricity sold to the EGAT under the project shall will be 54,810 MWh annually. By multiplying these values, the annual baseline emission is determined to be 32,119 t-CO2.
Monitoring methodologyAs prescribed in the monitoring requirement for Type I.D. projects, the amounts of electricity sold to EGAT will be the only data monitored. Electricity sales will be monitored by recording data directly from the imported electricity meter installed at EGAT (verifiable by comparison with the accounting data for electricity sales). As a means of further quality assurance, data from the exported electricity meter at SPC (monthly operation records) will also be checked.
Environmental impactConsiderationing to the environmental impact of exhaust gas, effluents, noise, and vibration caused by the new power station on the surrounding area, necessary countermeasures are to be prepared devised. Since no residential areas exist around the Rajburi Sugar Factory, the power station may not encounter major problems.
Issues and tasks for project implementationIn order to implement the Project, further agricultural and technical investigation is required to calculate the proportion of trash that can be collected from the sugarcane field. Trash is not very effective as a fertilizer, however, and it will be necessary to conduct on-site demonstrations to prove its effectiveness in suppressing weeds and/or preventing the soil from drying out and to obtain understanding from the farmers. After demonstrating these effects, the sustainable proportion of trash that can be collected from the field (to be used as fuel) without having an adverse impact on the sugarcane yield will be decided upon.