Survey of the Biomass Electric Generation System by the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) in Phi Phi Don Island in Thailand

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of Feasibility Study (FS)Survey of the Biomass Electric Generation System by the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) in Phi Phi Don Island in Thailand
FYFY 2008
Main Implementing EntityKRI Inc.
FS Partner(s)[Japan side] Fuji Electric Advanced Technology Co., Ltd.
[Host side] TISTR; PAE Thailand Public Co., Ltd.; and Ecopros Co., Ltd.
Location of Project ActivityThailand (Phi Phi Don Island, Krabi province)
Summary of FS ReportSummary (PDF403KB)
Description of Project ActivityIn FY 2007, KRI enforced the survey of the biomass electric generation system by the phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) in Phi Phi Don Island in Thailand. This feasibility study aims at the evaluation of feasibility of an electricity generation project from unused biomass, which plans to produce bio-gas (60% of methane gas) through the CH4 fermentation from kitchen wastes (garbage and wastewater) and human wastes from these resort hotels. The produced bio-gas will be input to 100 kW PAFC which is already home produced and commercialized in Japan, and electricity will be generated to meet the hotel’s demand.
In FY 2008, KRI enforced the survey again deeply as engineering point of view. As the result, from 6.6t/d of garbage will be reduced the 10,898tCO2 of GHG in the 1st year.
Targeted GHGCO2, and CH4
Category of Project ActivityWaste Management
Duration of Project Activity/ Crediting Period2010-2019
Baseline Scenario (including Methodology to be applied)Current state of the island resort in Thailand: There are not a waste/wastewater treatment/incinerator facilities and a public power plant/grid. Therefore, each resort handling it by themselves using own expense.
About the wastes from resort: The wastewater flows into sea without water treatment enough in individual resort, because Phi Phi island has not public wastewater treatment system. The garbage at resort is brought out and dumped at SWDS.
About electric power supply: The electric power supply in the island is generated from diesel engine generators on site by individual resorts in general. The capacity of these energy generators by the users is below several MW.
Gas engine generators using biogas: Gas engine generator is popular technology for small power generation using natural gas and/or city gas. Efficiency of the generator from fuel to electricity is low so as to be small scale. Moreover, using biogas, the efficiency drop down below 25% rapidly because biogas has low contents of energy (60% of CH4). Maintenance cost of the generator is about above 0.06USD/kWh. The users here does not consider having generators using biogas.
Demonstration of AdditionalityElectricity generated by PAFC using biogas is supplied through private grid to any facilities in the resort hotel. In this project using the renewable energy will reduce fuel consumption of generator by diesel engines. Avoiding dumping the wastes at SWDS reduces methane emissions from SWDS in Phuket and Krabi. The system that consists of methane fermentation and PAFC as generator using biogas make easy to the operations and maintenance by engineers without high education. Moreover, the maintenance cost of the PAFC is lower than a generator by gas engine.
Estimation of GHG Emission Reductions25,543tCO2/yr, in average
Monitoring Plan (including Methodology to be applied)All monitoring facilities will be installed and regularly calibrated for quality control by a reliable constructor (PAE Thailand) with the appropriate industry standards.
Environmental Impact AnalysisIn Phi Phi, there is not a wastes treatment facility and public power plant. All of fuel for generator and living and foods has to be transported from Phuket and Krabi, contrary, all of wastes have to be transported back to Phuket and Krabi. In this project, wastes in resort hotels can be used as fuel for electric generators. Amount of garbage that has to be transported out of island will be less than existing condition. In Krabi and Phuket province, there are lots of islands like Phi Phi Island and this system is applicable to there. The project could be reducing CO2, NOx and SOx by reduction of amount dumping, fosil fuel for generation/transportation.
Issues and Tasks for Project MaterialisationIn economic analysis for the project, we decide on the assumption that more that 25% of IRR in 10 years and go into the total black until 5 years. Initial cost of the project was 102 M THB, income was 10.7 M THB/yr + CER (depend of price and project period), expenses was 4 M THB + 12 M THB/7.5yr (cost of overhaul + interest (depend on government support). Then we trial calculate an economic analysis using some price of CER and ratio of subsidy from government At least, the project will realize under price of CER is 16.5EUR/tCO2 (IRR: 28%) and 25EUR/tCO2 (IRR: 40%) with supporting of 50% of initial cost as subsidy from the government.
Co-benefits EffectsExecution of the project, finally, the project could be reducing CH4 from SWDS, CO2, NOx and SOx from generator by reduction of amount dumping, fosil fuel for generation/transportation.