CDM Feasibility Study for Jatropha Biofuel and Power Generation Project in Cambodia

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of Feasibility Study (FS)CDM Feasibility Study for Jatropha Biofuel and Power Generation Project in Cambodia
FYFY 2008
Main Implementing EntityJapan Development Institute (JDI)
FS Partner(s)Sojitz Research Institute
Location of Project ActivityCambodia (Phnom Penh city and Kampong Speu state)
Summary of FS ReportSummary (PDF362KB)
Description of Project ActivityThe proposed project aims to supply a Jatropha biofuel for two additional HFO generators in PPSEZ with a total capacity of 13MW. This fuel switching contributes to GHG emission reduction and economical and reliable fuel supply realizing a competitive power supply for manufacturing in PPSEZ. The proposed project establishes a special purpose company (SPC)-Green Energy Co., Ltd. (tentative name) responsible for Jatropha biofuel production and sales. The SPC is also responsible for the implementation, management, QA/QC, and administration of the CDM project. Jatropha biofuel know as "Pure plant oil (PPO)" will be produced by oil extraction from Jatropha seeds and oil refining process in Kampong Speu state, a state next to Phnom Penh city. The biofuel feedstock supply will be performed entirely by CBEDC (Cambodia Bio-Energy Development Corporation), a subsidiary of JBEDC. 34,000t/year of Jatropha PPO is produced and transported to PPSEZ by fuel transporters. The PPO adapted generators in PPSEZ will substitute PPO for HFO.
Targeted GHGCO2
Category of Project ActivityBiomass Utilisation
Duration of Project Activity/ Crediting Period2010–2024 (15 years) / 2011-2020 (10 years)
Baseline Scenario (including Methodology to be applied)Applying AMS-I.A (Version 13) paragraph 7 (option2), a baseline scenario bases on the consumption of fossil fuel for the project site in the absence of the project. Thus, annual energy baseline is calculated as the sum of annual electricity generation in PPSEZ and CO2 emission based on the data from Colben Energy Co., Ltd. (CEC), an exclusive power producer and supplier of PPSEZ.
Demonstration of AdditionalityThe PPO technology is not available in the host country, which is considered as a technological barrier. Without PPO technology, competitive Jatropha biofuel would not be produced and able to replace HFO for the power generation.
Estimation of GHG Emission ReductionsEstimated GHG gas emission reduction from the proposed project is:
  • 2011: 489tCO2,
  • 2012: 971tCO2,
  • 2013: 7,589tCO2,
  • 2014: 26,791tCO2,
  • 2015: 52,645tCO2,
  • 2016 to 2020: 68,235tCO2/year.
The reduction in total of 10years will be 429,657tCO2.
Monitoring Plan (including Methodology to be applied)Approved monitoring methodology "AMS1.A.: Electricity generation by the user" will be applied. The SPC-Green Energy Ltd. will be responsible for QA/QC of monitoring data. Each data collection and documentation of the monitoring items will be performed by CBEDC for Jatropha seed production and collection, Green Energy Co., Ltd. for Jatropha PPO production, and CEC for power generation respectively.
Environmental Impact AnalysisThe proposed project requires IEIA for the establishment of Jatropha PPO production plants. Considering possible environmental impacts including air pollutions, water pollutions, industrial wastes, and noises, the proposed project is required to meet the all relevant laws and regulations.
Issues and Tasks for Project MaterialisationFirstly, additional efforts are needed to develop a total of 59,000ha Jatropha plantation or farms to meet 140,000t of necessary seeds for the proposed project. Considering the availability of Jatropha production sites, abandoned economic land concession will be used for middle to large scale plantation with cash-crop intercropping. In addition, small scale Jatropha farm with intercropping and hedge fencing will be applied to secure the biofuel feedstocks.
Secondly, smart collaboration between seed producers and biofuel consumer(s) is needed to compete the too law HFO price in Cambodia. Due to the financial crisis, the crude oil price came down to one third of its peak price in July 2008. As a result, HFO price became very low, which is hardly competitive for any biofuel. However, the proposed project still have some chance to produce attractive biofuel for independent power producers in case of smart arrangement among seed producers, biofuel producers, and biofuel consumers. Since the proposed project applies an advanced PPO technologies but minimum costs for investment and operation, a balanced arrangement between seed buy and biofuel sales with additional CER revenue allows the SPC to produce competitive biofuel.
JDI and relevant companies continuously work on both matters and are expected to validate the project in 2010.
Co-benefits EffectsThe reduction of sulfur-dioxide emission is expected at least one twenty fifth (1/25) of HFO exhaust. However, due to the lack of fuel test and engine test for this study, we concluded no indicators and their criteria are proposed this time.