Swine Farms in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Research into Effective Commercial Applications of Biogases

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of the researchSwine Farms in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Research into Effective Commercial Applications of Biogases
FYFY 2006
Main research orgnisationThe Japan Research Institute, Limited.
Research partner(s)Banco Sumitomo Mitsui Brasileiro S.A., ICF Consulting
Location of the projectBrazil (Santa Catarina)
Summary of the research report (PDF)Summary(PDF 173KB)
Description of the projectIn this chapter, we focus on the adoption of a system to collect and effectively utilize biogas emissions from 61 pig farms that belong to the Association of Catarinian Pig Farmers [Associacao Catarinense de Criadores de Suinos] (ACCS) in the state of Santa Catarina. Generators that incinerate collected biogas are installed at each pig farm. By adopting this system, emission of gaseous methane – which is 21 times more powerful as a greenhouse effect than CO2 – is reduced, while contributing to the sustainable development of Brazil and its regions.
Sector of the projectWaste Management
Duration of the project activity/ crediting period/
Baseline methodology/additionalityACM0010, an approved consolidated methodology based on AM0006 and AM0016- "Consolidated baseline methodology for GHG emission reductions from manure management system" – has been prepared as a baseline methodology for collection of methane generated from manure lagoons at pig farms and we applied.
The approved consolidated methodology ACM0010 determines the baseline scenario as per the following four steps.
[Step 1: Identification of alternative scenarios for proposed CDM project activities]
There are two alternative methods that can be considered, namely the "anaerobic lagoons" that are generally used in Brazil, and "anaerobic digesters", which are more advanced but rarely adopted.

[Step 2: Barrier Analysis]
Substantial investment is needed for anaerobic digesters, and detailed monitoring and system maintenance need to be performed. On the other hand, anaerobic lagoons represent simple and inexpensive technology, with straightforward operation and maintenance. Anaerobic lagoons should be installed as the baseline scenario from the perspective of both investment and technological barriers.

[Step 3: Investment Analysis]
Use of Net Present Value (NPV) analysis, has also confirmed the baseline scenario as the most attractive economically.

[Step 4: Baseline Revision at Revision of the Credit Period]
The credit period for this project is set as 10 years, so step 4 is not needed.
Estimation of GHG emissionsThe emission reduction volume is estimated as 83,868 t-CO2e per annum, while that for the total credit period until 2012 is 419,342 t-CO2e.
Baseline Emissions: 115,568 [t-CO2e/year]
Project Emissions: 31,700 [t-CO2e/year]
Leakage Emissions: 0 [t-CO2e/year]
Emission Reductions: 83,868 [t-CO2e/year]
Monitoring methodologyIn this report, the ER calculation was based on the assumption that "combustion occurs in an closed system, with no physical leaks". However, leakage during flaring needs to be measured in order to decide the flaring efficiency, so the expected flaring efficiency during actual measurements may not be satisfied, and in this case, the actual ER will be less than expected.
Environmental impactIn association with the implementation of this project, the environment at sites that have not been awarded an environmental license due to the unhygienic nature of existing manure treatment facilities will be improved. Technology for the installation of the bio digester to be used for this project and biogas collection usage technology have already been adopted for CDM trade in Brazil, but have yet to be widely adopted by pig farmers in Brazil. It is expected that this environmentally friendly technology’s effects will be recognized through this project, and thus voluntary adopted in Brazil.
Issues and tasks for project implementationThe expenses for this project, for the facility and constructions, would be financed by financial facilities, including Banco do Brazil, Banco Sumitomo Mitsui Brasileiro, Federal and local financial facilities.
Credit owners tend to overestimate potential credit, and combustion ratio and physical leaks may be underestimated. If the ER was based on false assumptions when the business plan was drawn up, the anticipated CER volume may not be possible under actual business conditions.
In this report, It is estimated that an additional investment should be made to realize combustion in a closed system with an eye to gain the potential increase in ER when an official PDD is submitted to the CDM council. Accordingly, F/S research should be attempted using lower estimates as far as possible.