The Investigation of the Non-Firing Bricks Business Production for Effective Use of the Untapped Natural Resources in India

Global Environment Centre Foundation(GEC)

Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies

Title of the researchThe Investigation of the Non-Firing Bricks Business Production for Effective Use of the Untapped Natural Resources in India
FYFY 2006
Main research orgnisationKamei Seito Co., Ltd.
Research partner(s)(1)Japan
1)Partner 1: Nagoya Institute of Technology
・ The role: In addition to local raw materials, and evaluating the product, the burning test.
2)Partner 2: Marubeni Corporation
・ The role : The contact business with the PDD, creating support and the place.
3)Partner 3: The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.
・ The role: The methodology and dissemination of information on CDM.

1)Partner 1: Jypti Transformers & Electricals , Orissa state, Sambalpool City.
・ The role: Responsible for the main organization to operate the CDM in India side. To assemble the information for the participating companies.
Location of the projectIndia (Orissa)
Summary of the research report (PDF)Summary(PDF 120KB)
Description of the projectIn India, approximately 360,000,000,000 bricks are manufactured annually by the inefficient baking process. A great deal of low dignity coal is consumed as fuel and a lot of CO2, SO ⅹ, NO ⅹ, and ash dust is emitted. Because of this inefficient process and the crudity of the materials, the quality of the product itself is unstable. This has been reported as being a big damage factor in the earthquake in the western part of India, which occurred in 2001. Mass consumption of the groundwater in a country where there is a problem with water resources, and creating wasteland by large excavations of the clay (for the raw materials of the bricks), has also become a big problem.
As the result of the local inspection, the coal which is used for the firing-bricks is more than 144,000,000 tons, emitted CO2 is 186,000,000 tons, and also the domestic coal in India contains much ash (an average of 40%) so it proved that 57,000,000 tons or more of Surface Particulate Matter (SPM) was emitted per year.
The process of producing the non-firing bricks which uses the coal ash which occurs in the coal-fired power plant, as the waste can be recycled as raw materials and the slag cement and the chemical reaction of the additives without burning. Therefore, this technology is predicted as a possible expectation for effective use of untapped resources and environmental protection, the consumption reduction of the fossil fuel (or, the conversion utilization: a short supply to the coal-fired power plant is estimated to rise up to 133 Mt in 2007 in India) and the improvement of the working environment. This technology is already commercialized in many parts of Japan.
The most of the domestic brick manufacturers in India do not even have the buildings or facilities, and as the organizations do not have the capacity to deal directly with international clients, we are planning the acquisition or the joint venture from the existing brick manufacture to replace the existing bricks to "Non-firing bricks" after securing the workforce and sales route with the local counterpart in India (Jypti Transformers The & Electricals).
On the basis of above plan, we proved the following items.
* It restrains the consumption of coal (The energy saving).
* The resource preservation, which uses by-products such as the fly ash in equal to or more than 90% of raw materials (The resource saving)
* The securing of steady production rates, due to the manufacturing machinery
* Equal to or more than 30% saving of the water resources
* The CO2 reduction of approximately 30,000 tons per year can be looked forward to with1 line (about 58,000,000 annual amounts of manufacture)
It was decided to investigate the profitability and feasibility of CDM business to bring the credit acquisition.
Sector of the projectOthers
Duration of the project activity/ crediting period10 years/
Baseline methodology/additionalityAMS II.D. – Energy saving and a fuel switch step in an industrial institution.
An energy baseline of a subsystem is prescribed in the eighth edition. The baseline is from a substitute case, replacing an existing institution. The existing institution to be replaced is the 11 local brick factories producing conventional model bricks by the conventional coal-burning method, which is intensive. The discharge coefficient is multiplied by each energy form in a discharge baseline, as prescribed in the above methodology. As is mentioned in section B3, discharge sources in this baseline scenario are; 1) CO2 discharged by the burning of coal in the brick factory, 2) CO2 discharged by the coal transportation from the coal mine to these factories, 3) CO2 discharged by the end product transportation from the factory to the user. Therefore, baseline discharge is a total of the discharges from these three discharge sources.

The technical barrier
The suggested process of manufacturing the non-firing bricks is innovative and it is a totally new kind in a project enforcement area.
Estimation of GHG emissionsEstimation of CO2 emissions: Approx 30,000 tons per year. After 10 years, it becomes about 300,000 tons
Monitoring methodologyIn the this project, it implements the following monitoring
・ Electricity consumption at the project plant in the year y
・ Slug cement consumptions in the year y
・ The amount of a transported slug cement to the plant by a vehicle mode v in the year y
・ The amount of fly ash transported to the project plant by a vehicle mode v in the year y
・ The amount of sponge iron transported to the project plant by 9t trucks in the year y
・ Transportation distance of slug cement by 9t trucks from Bargarh Cements Works of the Associated Cement Companies Limited to the project plant (1way)
・ Transportation distance of fly ash by 9t trucks from Hindalco Coal Power Plant to the project plant (1 way)
・ Transportation distance of sponge iron by 9t trucks from Shyam DRI Power Limited to the project plant (1 way)
・ Vehicle Miles Traveled of brick transportation for a vehicle mode v in the year y
Environmental impactThe concerned project has no existing elements that aggravate environment. SOx, NOx, and ash dust reaching fine particles decreases in the atmosphere, and the environment is improved by this project. Also, because the amount of consumption of the groundwater, too, is substantially reduced and the waste and the drainage also don't go out of the manufacturing process, the general environmental improvement effect is big. It also improves the global warming phenomenon, and it is useful for the improvement of the inferior working environment and GHG is reduced as a result.
Issues and tasks for project implementationThe fund plan for the project implementation
The specific investment and the financing plans are, as yet, undecided, but to expect 12.5% of investment each from Japan and India, and the remaining 75% to be funded by a loan. On the Japanese side JBIC, trading companies, the bank etc. have been thought of, but there is a relation to the CER price future direction, too, and the present situation is undecided. It plans to review once the general stages of the plan are fixed.